Gerberich referred to recently published results from a prospective, controlled trial of Steripath, versus standard phle- botomy procedures, in the emergency department at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), which showed a 92 percent reduction in false positives with a 12-month sustained contamination rate of 0.2 percent when using Steripath.6

“Results from the UNMC

study of Steripath conservatively estimated $4,850 as the cost of a blood-contamination event resulting in a false- positive test result for sepsis,”6

said Gerberich.

“Using this conservative estimate, infection control expert and study author Mark Rupp, MD, said the use of Steripath would save his single hospital $1.8 million per year by preventing 373 cases of contamination leading to false positives.”6 Casados, BD Life Sciences, stressed the im- portance of understanding the link between HAIs, antimicrobial therapy, readmissions, and sepsis. “HAIs can lead to many com- plications during hospital admission,” she said. Casados offered an example: immu- nocompromised patients initially admitted with pneumonia or for surgery, etc., may be placed on antimicrobial therapy for a prolonged period of time, increasing the chance of building resistance to the antibiotic, which increases the chance of contracting an HAI, which, in turn puts the patient at risk of acquiring sepsis. Shane Cooke, Chief Strategy Officer, Chee- tah Medical, referred to a study published in JAMA indicating that the proportion and cost of readmissions due to sepsis are even higher than those more widely known conditions.” In the U.S., one patient every 20 seconds is diagnosed with sepsis, and 28 percent to 50 percent of these patients die.”7 “Achieving the proper fluid balance dur- ing sepsis is critical to avoiding com- plications and even death,” said Cooke, noting that balance between too little and too much fluid for sepsis patients may sometimes be delicate. “More than 80 percent of patients within a hospital are receiving fluids in- travenously, espe- cially in emergency situations such as with low blood pres-

sure. Unlike prescription medicines, however, infusion fluids are often prescribed without measuring a patient’s ability to absorb or respond to them. Receiving too little fluid intravenously, or too much for a patient’s specific needs, can lead to serious complications, even death. “Studies have shown Cheetah Medical’s non-invasive technology equips clinicians with the information needed to guide fluid-management decisions accurately, which may lead to im- proved clinical and economic out-

Steripath initial specimen

diversion device comes,” stated Cooke. He

alluded to sepsis studies from the University of Kansas Health System demonstrating that stroke volume optimization, “guided by Cheetah technology, led to a reduction in ICU length of stay of 2.9 days and reduced the risk of both mechanical ventilation and initiation of acute dialysis.8

Additionally, the

data show total hospital cost savings of over $1.4 million during the six-month study.”8

The staggering cost of sepsis O’Malley, EarlySense, brought out an as- tounding fact. “The financial burden of sepsis is incredibly costly. In 2015, Medicare paid $6 billion to treat sepsis.”9, 10 “Sepsis carries an estimated annual fi- nancial burden of nearly $24 billion, with the average hospital bearing costs of nearly $19,000 per case for a primary diagnosis,” contributed Claypool, Wolters Kluwer. “Yet, the Advisory Board notes that the typical Medicare reimbursement for sepsis and sepsis with complications is just $7,100 to $12,000. POC Advisor helps to lower those costs by reducing lengths of stay, as well as sepsis-related 30-day readmissions.” “Globally, sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality and critical illness, con- tributing to 25 percent to 30 percent of hospital mortality rates,”11


Casados, BD Life Sci- ences. “Clinical studies have demonstrated a two-fold increase in mortality caused by sepsis when inap- propriate antimi- crobial therapy is given.12

Sepsis is

Cheetah Starling SV hemodynamic monitoring system and 100 percent non-invasive sensors


the No. 1 cost of hospitalization in the U.S., consum- ing more than $24 billion each year.13

Collins, Vocera Communications, talked about a 2016 study,14

which revealed “the

annual costs for treating sepsis in hospi- tals increased over $3.4 billion during a two-year period. While sepsis can have a significant impact on a hospital’s bottom line, the impact it can have on the lives of patients and families is staggering. Every year, sepsis kills approximately 258,000 people in the U.S., or one person every two minutes. For every hour that passes without treating sepsis, the likelihood of death increases. The best way to beat sepsis is by beating the clock. Time is a key factor in the battle against sepsis. So, an integrated clinical workflow with mobile communication, intelligent alerting, and real-time situational awareness is essential for reducing sepsis-related complications and costs.” HPN


1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Get ahead of sepsis. pdf. Last accessed March 1, 2018.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sepsis data & reports. Last accessed March 1, 2018.

3. Brown, H, Terrence J, Vasquez P, et al. Continuous monitoring in an inpatient medical-surgical unit: a controlled clinical trial. Am J Med. 2014 March;127:226-232.

4. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/AcuteInpatientPPS/Readmis- sions-Reduction-Program.html. Last accessed March 1, 2018.

5. Manaktala S, Claypool SR. Evaluating the impact of a computer- ized surveillance algorithm and decision support system on sepsis mortality. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2017 Jan;24(1):88-95.

6. Rupp ME, Cavalieri RJ, Marolf C, et al. Reduction in blood culture contamination through use of initial specimen diversion device. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 15;65(2):201-205.

7. Mayr FB, Talia VB, Balakumar V, et al. Proportion and cost of unplanned 30-day readmissions after sepsis compared with other medical conditions. JAMA. 2017;317(5):530-531. https://

8. Latham HE, Bengtson CD, Satterwhite L, et al. Stroke volume guided resuscitation in severe sepsis and septic shock improves outcomes. J Crit Care. 2017;42(12):42-46. http://www.jccjournal. org/article/S0883-9441(16)30938-8/fulltext.

9. Castellucci M. Sepsis costs Medicare $6 billion in 2015, more than any other discharge. Modern Healthcare. September 1, 2017. NEWS/170909982. Last accessed March 2, 2018.

10. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Inpatient charge data FY 2015. Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/Medicare-Provider-Charge- Data/Inpatient2015.html. Last accessed March 2, 2018.

11. Fleischmann C, Scherag A, Adhikari NK, et al. Assessment of global incidence and mortality of hospital-treated sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;193(3):259-272.

12. LaRosa SP. Sepsis. Cleveland Clinic Center for Continuing Edu- cation, Cleveland Clinic Foundation: Lyndhurst, OH; August 2010. HPN_LaRosa_Ref.pdf Last accessed March 8, 2018.

13. Torio CM, Moore BJ. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Statistical Brief #204. National inpatient hospital costs: the most expensive condi- tions by payer, 2013. May 2016. reports/statbriefs/sb204-Most-Expensive-Hospital-Conditions.pdf.

14. Sepsis Alliance. New U.S. government report reveals annual cost of hospital treatment of sepsis has grown by $3.4 billion. Sepsis Alliance News. June 30, 2016. sepsis-alliance-news/new-u-s-government-report-reveals-annual-cost- of-hospital-treatment-of-sepsis-has-grown-by-3-4-billion/.

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