tracking solutions to be deployed in a more cost-effective manner than other solutions. With our cloud platform we can collect and analyze data from hundreds of locations in real-time, enabling healthcare organizations to proac- tively locate and manage valuable assets and supplies in the value chain.”

Adam Peck, Vice President, Marketing, CenTrak Inc., Newtown, PA

“CenTrak’s combination of technologies, which combines Second Generation Infrared (Gen2IR), Wi-Fi, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Active-UHF, Passive-UHF, and Low Fre- quency (LF), provides a platform for the most accurate and scalable asset tracking and management solution on the market. CenTrak’s patented Gen2IR technology delivers certainty-based location data with rapid update speeds specifically engineered to handle today’s healthcare envi- ronment. Gen2IR will not pass through walls and it does not suffer from line-of-sight limitations. These devices can be positioned wherever location data is needed including rooms, hallways, bays, and even chairs or shelves — allow- ing for support of countless clinical application use cases, maximizing value and ROI. With CenTrak’s open platform, location information can then be effortlessly connected and streamed in real-time to our 130+ integrated solutions including Nurse Call, Electronic Medical Records, Capacity Management, Asset Management, Computerized Main- tenance Management, and Hand Hygiene applications. “While basic asset tracking and visibility is useful in

many healthcare applications, true asset management and clinical workflow automation cannot be confidently achieved without certainty-based locating. We are often asked, ‘is this solution accurate within (x number of) feet?’ However, it is important to understand that whether it is within one foot or 10, all of these accuracy ‘requirements’ still leave room for error. What healthcare facilities really need to know with 100 percent absolute certainty is if an asset, patient or staff member is in or out of the clinically meaningful zone they have defined. One foot can mean the difference between an IV pump in a patient’s room, out in the hallway, or in a soiled closet. This uncertainty makes it difficult to accurately manage PAR-levels or measure to improve asset utilization rates.”

Sandy Murti, Senior Director, Industry Solutions & Business Development, Impinj Inc., Seattle

“Impinj is a leading provider and pioneer of RAIN RFID solutions for identifying, locating and authenticating ev- eryday items. We work with partners and customers who use RAIN RFID technology to complement their RTLS asset management systems. RAIN RFID is an established wireless technology that is battery-free (i.e., passive) and represents a unified, global standard for RFID technology. “What does this mean for healthcare providers and RTLS

systems providers? In essence, RAIN RFID tags are much less expensive than many active RFID tags, yet can be read at distances of up to 30 feet by RAIN RFID reader systems. The low cost of these tags enables healthcare organizations to scale their asset management out to a broad range of asset types, different shapes, sizes and price points. For many healthcare organizations this can mean the differ- ence between tracking 1,000 assets or tracking tens of thousands of assets.”

From page 69

MURTI: “Should a RTLS system be compromised, providers should quickly implement their emergency security procedures. The provider should bring the RTLS system into a safe operating mode — this would mean temporarily shutting down access to external networks, such as the internet or third-party systems.”

Finally, how realistic is it to ensure RTLS systems are secure and “hack-proof” so to speak, knowing that not even biometrics (e.g., thumbprint, ocular, facial) truly is secure because the system creates and stores a file of the biometric image, which can be accessed by hackers? GEVA: “No system is 100 percent bulletproof, but the risks to RTLS systems can be managed and substantially mitigated through the technology and methodologies discussed earlier.” JACKSON: “Complying with industry cybersecurity standards, applying network and system controls and ensuring applications are security-coded are the mechanics RTLS vendors must employ to assist in deterring a malicious event. However, establishing a ‘hack-proof’ system relies on the healthcare organization to understand techniques that deter harmful events, as well as to adopt, govern, and execute policies and procedures that take cybersecurity seriously. By working in concert on limiting accessibility to the computing systems, the networks they reside upon, the applications that are running, along with the ongoing monitoring of each, healthcare entities can establish a solid defense against potential threats.” SULLIVAN: “No system is ‘hack-proof.’ By design, RTLS systems should consider what data they use and how that information is managed and protected. A good practice that helps ensure a compromised RTLS system carries little risk is to avoid duplicating data and keeping data separate until such time as it must be presented as information. Separating RTLS data from business/operations and personal data records whenever possible is also a good practice. Firewalls and data storage protections should also be employed. Also, network access policies should always be strictly enforced. Maintaining security is especially challenging as the capabilities to attack systems evolves along with the very technologies used to secure networks and RTLS systems. A simple and often overlooked part of an effective security solution involves the diligent management of system access to employees, contractors, consul- tants and other parties. Organizations that minimize potential risks will also minimize overall damage. CARNEY: “New hacks and cyberattack strategies arise every day, so even if a system has the ultimate security today, that’s not necessarily going to be true tomorrow. It’s imperative to evolve with criminal trends and tactics just as those criminals evolve with industry standards and developments. Keep up with best practices and modern technical tools for protecting data, stay abreast of the news, and ensure that all systems are patched in a prompt manner. Re- maining vigilant and alert is the best defense to a hack when combined with solid technology practices, inside and out of an RTLS system.” CANNELL: “Encompass uses Wi-Fi and thus inherits the security level of the hospital’s own network. However, by utilizing BLE beacons that only broadcast their MAC identifier, an extra level of security is achieved. There is no personal or private information included in the BLE broadcast packet, and the RTLS information is only achieved when the BLE beacon ID is matched via a prior knowledge to the asset information stored outside of the hospital infrastructure in the GE Microsoft Azure Cloud managed infrastructure. In the case of Encompass, security is achieved via the system architecture design and the latest wired and wireless security protocols.” MURTI: “One of the key principles of cyber security is to develop a system where it would be a more expensive and resource-intensive process for hack- ers than the benefit they could get out of the hack. This principle also applies to RTLS systems. The system should be designed so that the cost of hacking an RTLS system far exceeds the benefit.” HPN

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